MCAT Biochemistry Practice Test 11: Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism

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1. Which of the following enzymes is NOT used for lipid digestion in the digestive tract?

  • A. Pancreatic lipase
  • B. Hormone-sensitive lipase
  • C. Cholesterol esterase
  • D. Colipase

2. What is the fate of long-chain fatty acids that are contained within micelles?

  • A. Transport into chylomicrons released into the lymphatic system
  • B. Transport into chylomicrons released into the circulatory system
  • C. Direct diffusion across the intestine into the circulatory system
  • D. Direct diffusion across the intestine into the lymphatic system

3. During fatty acid mobilization, which of the following occur(s)?

I. HSL is activated.

II. Free fatty acids are released.

III. Gluconeogenesis proceeds in adipocytes.

  • A. I only
  • B. III only
  • C. I and II only
  • D. II and III only

4. How do chylomicrons and VLDLs differ?

  • A. Chylomicrons contain apoproteins, VLDLs do not.
  • B. Chylomicrons are synthesized in the intestine, VLDLs are synthesized in the liver.
  • C. Chylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, VLDLs transport cholesterol.
  • D. VLDLs are another term for chylomicron remnants; they differ in age.

5. Which of the following could result from an absence of apolipoproteins?

I. An inability to secrete lipid transport lipoproteins.

II. An inability to endocytose lipoproteins.

III. A decreased ability to remove excess cholesterol from blood vessels.

  • A. I only
  • B. III only
  • C. I and II only
  • D. I, II, and III

6. Statin drugs inhibit HMG-CoA reductase. As such, they are likely prescribed for:

  • A. hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol).
  • B. hypertriglyceridemia (high triacylglycerol).
  • C. hypocholesterolemia (low cholesterol).
  • D. visceral adiposity (obesity).

7. What is the function of LCAT?

  • A. LCAT catalyzes the production of cholesteryl esters.
  • B. LCAT catalyzes the production of cholesterol.
  • C. LCAT catalyzes the breakdown of cholesteryl esters.
  • D. LCAT catalyzes the breakdown of cholesterol.

8. Which fatty acid can be synthesized by humans?

  • A. 12:00
  • B. 16:00
  • C. 16:01
  • D. 18:03

9. Which of the following best characterizes the process of fatty acid synthesis?

  • A. Two reductions followed by a dehydration and bond formation.
  • B. Reduction followed by activation, bond formation, dehydration, and reduction.
  • C. Activation followed by bond formation, reduction, dehydration, and reduction.
  • D. Activation followed by bond formation, oxidation, dehydration, and reduction.

10. Where does β-oxidation of fatty acids occur within the cell?

  • A. Cytosol
  • B. Mitochondria
  • C. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • D. Plasma membrane

11. The majority of triacylglycerol stored in adipocytes originates from:

  • A. synthesis in the adipocyte.
  • B. dietary intake.
  • C. ketone bodies.
  • D. synthesis in the liver.

12. 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase is used in the oxidation of:

  • A. saturated fatty acids.
  • B. monounsaturated fatty acids.
  • C. polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • D. cholesterol.

13. Which of the following is true regarding ketolysis?

  • A. Ketolysis occurs only in the brain.
  • B. Ketolysis occurs in the liver.
  • C. Ketolysis generates acetyl-CoA.
  • D. Ketolysis increases glucose metabolism.

14. Which of the following amino acids will provide the most energy when degraded?

  • A. Glycine
  • B. Alanine
  • C. Valine
  • D. Isoleucine

15. Which of the following is LEAST likely to result from protein degradation and processing by the liver?

  • A. Fatty acids
  • B. Glucose
  • C. Acetoacetate
  • D. 3-Hydroxybutyrate